If you hold a philosophy that excludes the supernatural, you can never come to historical reports of the miraculous with an open mind. This is an illustration of the introductory chapter of C.S. Lewis’ book called ‘Miracles’. You can find the book here: http://www.amazon.com/Miracles-C-S-Lewis/dp/0060653019
(0:10) Aristot. Met. 3.995a “It is necessary…that we first describe the questions which should first be discussed.” Lewis also refers to Book '2' in his quote.
(2:38) “In a popular commentary” Lewis here refers to p. 242 & p. 270 of ‘A New Commentary of Holy Scripture - Volume 3’ by Charles Gore (1928), which contains a commentary of the Gospel According to St. John by Walter Lock. It reads: "The [earliest] date [of writing the book] MUST be after the crucifixion of St. Peter, possibly after the death, certainly after the extreme old age, of the loved disciple." Walter Locks then goes on to restate that assumption in his commentary on John 21.18: "This saying…'carry thee' suggests carrying out to burial, and 'stretching forth the hands' suggests crucifixion, when 'another' wiII refer to the human agent; the writer, WRITING AFTER PETER'S DEATH, rightly so interprets it (ct. 2 Peter 1.14, a reference to this saying)." John Chapter 21, however, in no way communicates either John’s old age nor that the chapter was written after the death of St. Peter. There are various arguments for this belief, but Lock (rather strangely as all his other assumptions about his dates are grounded) gives us no evidence whatsoever, and then bases his date upon that assumption.
(2:45) Papyri 52 illustrated here is a fragment of a single page from a codex that contained the Gospel of John dated to the first half of the 2st Century (117-138 A.D) .
(4:18) To 'beg the question' is to assume the truth of an argument or proposition to be proved, without arguing it.